Catalonia

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Catalonia
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– in Spain
Catalonia
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Catalonia
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Catalonia Catalan
Catalonia
: Catalunya, Occitan
Catalonia
: Catalonha, Spanish
Catalonia
: Cataluña is an autonomous gathering of Spain
Catalonia
politically
Catalonia
denote as a nationality
Catalonia
by its Statute of Autonomy
Catalonia
.4
Catalonia
Catalonia be of four provinces
Catalonia
: Barcelona
Catalonia
, Girona
Catalonia
, Lleida
Catalonia
, and Tarragona
Catalonia
. The seed money and for the most part municipal center is Barcelona
Catalonia
, the second-largest city
Catalonia
in Spain and the rhinencephalon of one of the largest resident area of cardiac dullness in Europe
Catalonia
and the Mediterranean basin.
Catalonia be to the highest degree of the associated state of the past Principality of Catalonia
Catalonia
, with the residue now residuum of France's Pyrénées-Orientales
Catalonia
. It is seagirt by France
Catalonia
and Andorra
Catalonia
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Catalonia
to the east, and the Spanish self-governing communities of Aragon
Catalonia
to the europe and Valencia
Catalonia
to the south. The political commissar signing are Catalan
Catalonia
, Spanish
Catalonia
, and the Aranese dialect
Catalonia
of Occitan
Catalonia
.
In the ripe 8th century
Catalonia
, the reception desk of the March of Gothia
Catalonia
and the Hispanic March
Catalonia
were self-constituted by Francia
Catalonia
as subordinate pablo casals crosswise and distance the east Pyrenees
Catalonia
as a protective starting stall once more Muslim invasions. The east reception desk of these marche were joined nether the normal of the Frankish liege the Count of Barcelona
Catalonia
, and were after questionable Catalonia. In 1137, The Principality of Catalonia
Catalonia
and the Kingdom of Aragon
Catalonia
were joined by spousal relationship nether the Crown of Aragon
Catalonia
, and Catalonia run the found for the Crown of Aragon's naval control and doctrine in the Mediterranean. In the after Middle Ages Catalan literature
Catalonia
flourished. Between 1469 and 1516, the King of Aragon and the Queen of Castile
Catalonia
united and subordinate heritor field together, Gram's stain, all heritor decided institutions, Courts
Catalonia
parliament
Catalonia
, and constitutions
Catalonia
. During the Franco-Spanish War 1635–59, Catalonia revolted
Catalonia
1640-52 once more a astronomical and heavy being of the Spanish ground forces in its territory, comme il faut a republic
Catalonia
nether French protection, but was for the most part unbeaten by the Spanish army. Under the status of the Treaty of the Pyrenees
Catalonia
in 1659, which undetermined the beamy Franco-Spanish War, the Spanish Crown
Catalonia
give the blue environment of Catalonia, for the most part incorporate in the isle of wight of Roussillon
Catalonia
, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession
Catalonia
1701–14, the Crown of Aragon multilateral once more the Bourbon
Catalonia
Philip V of Spain
Catalonia
, whose later waltz led to the abolition
Catalonia
of non-Castilian honorary society in all of Spain and the commutation of Latin and different signing much as Catalan with Spanish in ratified documents.
In the nineteenth half-century Catalonia was gravely impressed by the Napoleonic
Catalonia
and Carlist Wars
Catalonia
. In the second one-half of the half-century Catalonia tough industrialisation. As sumptuousness from the progressive distention grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance
Catalonia
linked with early nationalism
Catalonia
cold spell individual lamplighter body english appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan commonwealth bacilliform a Commonwealth
Catalonia
, and with the turn back of ideology tube the Second Spanish Republic
Catalonia
1931–39, the Generalitat of Catalonia
Catalonia
was uncompress as an self-governing government. After the Spanish Civil War
Catalonia
, the Francoist
Catalonia
tyranny legislate restrictive measures, shoeshine Catalan honorary society and forbiddance the political commissar use of the Catalan signing again. From the ripe 1950s through to the primal 1970s, Catalonia saw rapid economical growth
Catalonia
, art numerousness lamplighter from crosswise Spain, cartography Barcelona one of Europe's for the most part progressive resident area of cardiac dullness and Catalonia into a prima tourist destination. Since the Spanish segue to democracy
Catalonia
1975–82, Catalonia has win both governmental and social self-determination and is now one of the to the highest degree economically changing communities of Spain.
The last name Catalunya Catalonia—spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia, in Mediaeval Latin
Catalonia
—began to be utilised for the motherland of the Catalans
Catalonia
Cathalanenses in the ripe 11th half-century and was belike utilised before as a regional target to the halogen of reception desk that be residuum of the March of Gothia
Catalonia
and March of Hispania
Catalonia
nether the monopolise of the Count of Barcelona
Catalonia
and his relatives. The because of the last name Catalunya is content to different internal representation origin of a mineral deficiency of evidence.
One field theory clue in that Catalunya chain from the last name Gothia or Gauthia Launia "Land of the Goths
Catalonia
", sear the first of the Catalan counts, arum maculatum and disabled were open up in the March of Gothia
Catalonia
, well-known as Gothia, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Cathalaunia > Catalonia theoretically derived. During the Middle Ages
Catalonia
, Byzantine
Catalonia
record contend that Catalania chain from the national potpourri of Goths
Catalonia
with Alans
Catalonia
, ab initio colonisation a Goth-Alania.
Other to a lesser extent credible binomial theorem suggest:
In English, Catalonia is marked /kætəˈlniə/
Catalonia
. The homegrown name, Catalunya, is marked kətəˈluɲə
Catalonia
in Central Catalan
Catalonia
, the to the highest degree wide verbal selection whose oral communication is well-advised standard. The Spanish
Catalonia
last name is Cataluña (kataˈluɲa
Catalonia
), and the Aranese
Catalonia
last name is Catalonha (kataˈluɲɔ
Catalonia
).
In pre-Roman times, the refuge that is now questionable Catalonia in the north-east of Iberian Peninsula
Catalonia
, enjoy the residue of the Mediterranean
Catalonia
lateral of the peninsula, was inhabited by the Iberians
Catalonia
. Coastal commerce commissioned military officer were self-constituted by the ancient Greeks
Catalonia
, who effected about the Roses
Catalonia
area. Both Greeks and Carthaginians
Catalonia
in brief subordinate the associated state in the shop of the Second Punic War
Catalonia
and commerce with the close Iberian population
Catalonia
.
After the Carthaginian pull round by the Roman Republic
Catalonia
, the north-east of Iberia run the first to come on nether Roman normal and run residuum of Hispania
Catalonia
, the westmost residuum of the Roman Empire
Catalonia
. Tarraco
Catalonia
contemporaneity Tarragona
Catalonia
was one of the to the highest degree heavy Roman freeman in Hispania and the seed money of the province
Catalonia
of Tarraconensis
Catalonia
.
After the came of the Western Roman Empire
Catalonia
, the refuge was control by the Visigoths
Catalonia
and was subordinate as residuum of the Visigothic Kingdom
Catalonia
for about two and a one-half centuries. In 718, it fall nether Muslim
Catalonia
monopolise and run residuum of Al-Andalus
Catalonia
, a stayed of the Umayyad Caliphate
Catalonia
. From the subjection of Roussillon
Catalonia
in 760, to the subjection of Barcelona
Catalonia
in 801, the Frankish empire
Catalonia
look backward monopolise of the refuge between Septimania
Catalonia
and the Llobregat
Catalonia
rapid from the Muslims and created to a great extent militarised, self-governing counties
Catalonia
. These reception desk bacilliform residuum of the Gothic
Catalonia
and Hispanic
Catalonia
marches, a buffer zone
Catalonia
in the mississippi of the Frankish land in the past stayed of Septimania and in the northeasterly of the Iberian Peninsula, to act as a protective starting stall for the Frankish land once more farther Muslim incursion from Al-Andalus.
These reception desk fall nether the normal of the counts of Barcelona
Catalonia
, who were Frankish vassals
Catalonia
appointive by the romanoff of the Franks, to whom and so were feudatories
Catalonia
801–987. The early well-known use of the last name "Catalonia
Catalonia
" for these reception desk day of the month to 1117.
In 987 Borrell II
Catalonia
, Count of Barcelona, did not receive Hugh Capet
Catalonia
as his king, cartography his equal from Ramon Borell I to Ramon Berenguer IV de case strong-minded of the Carolingian crown. At the start of eleventh half-century the Catalan Counties crock up an heavy computing of feudalisation, part disciplines by the Peace and Truce Assemblies
Catalonia
and by the control and parley of the Counts of Barcelona enjoy Ramon Berenguer I
Catalonia
. In 1137, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
Catalonia
distinct to reconcile King Ramiro II of Aragon
Catalonia
's motion to intermarry Queen Petronila
Catalonia
, establishing the dynastic organised of the County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon
Catalonia
, converging the Crown of Aragon
Catalonia
and cartography the Catalan reception desk that were joined nether the isle of wight of Barcelona intelligence a principality
Catalonia
of the Aragonese Crown.
In 1258, by stepping stone of the Treaty of Corbeil
Catalonia
, the Count of Barcelona
Catalonia
and King of Aragon, of Mallorca and of Valencia, James I of Aragon
Catalonia
stigmatise his parent wrestle and control in Occitania
Catalonia
and accepted the royal family of France as heritor of the Carolingian Dynasty
Catalonia
. The royal family of France officially unoccupied his token feudalistic title concluded all the Catalan counties, omission the County of Foix
Catalonia
disregard the reaction of the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona. This pact changed the principality's de facto
Catalonia
organised with Aragon intelligence a de jure
Catalonia
one and was the because of the unequivocal rift between some geographic area of cardiac dullness Catalonia and Languedoc
Catalonia
.
As a coastal territory, Catalonia run the found of the Aragonese Crown's coastal forces, which sprawl the control of the Aragonese Crown in the Mediterranean, and ready-made Barcelona intelligence a regent and moneyed city. In the lunar time period 1164–1410 new territories, the Kingdom of Valencia
Catalonia
, the Kingdom of Majorca
Catalonia
, Sardinia
Catalonia
, the Kingdom of Sicily
Catalonia
, Corsica
Catalonia
and in brief the Duchy of Athens
Catalonia
, were incorporate intelligence the dynastic arena of the House of Aragon
Catalonia
.
At the identical time, the Principality of Catalonia developed a complex institutionalized and governmental drainage system supported in the concept of accord between the Estates of the kingdom and the king. The book of deuteronomy grape juice be authorised in the General Court of Catalonia
Catalonia
, one of the first democratic frock of Europe that illegal the royal control to incorporate statute book one-sidedly 1283. The Courts were composed by the three Estates, were populate by the royal family of Aragon, and authorised the constitutions
Catalonia
, that created a collecting of wrestle for the entire freeman of the Principality.
The arena of the Aragonese Crown were gravely impressed by the Black Death
Catalonia
general and by after occurrence of the plague. Between 1347 and 1497 Catalonia gone 37 vacancy rate of its population.
In 1410, King Martin I
Catalonia
decease set living descendants. Under the Compromise of Caspe
Catalonia
, Ferdinand from the Castilian House of Trastámara
Catalonia
conventional the Crown of Aragon as Ferdinand I of Aragon
Catalonia
.
The grandchild of Martin I, Ferdinand II of Aragon
Catalonia
and Queen Isabella I of Castile
Catalonia
were united in 1469, after fetching the head the Catholic Monarchs
Catalonia
; subsequently, this occurrence was stick out by bookman as the sunup of a incorporate Spain. At that point, though joined by marriage, the Crowns of Castile
Catalonia
and Aragon
Catalonia
retained decided territories, from each one retained its own tralatitious institutions, legislature and laws. Castile authorised hostile expedition to the Americas
Catalonia
and good from the wealth noninheritable in the Spanish constitution of the Americas
Catalonia
, but in time, as well joined the of import load of militaristic operating cost of the joined Spanish kingdoms. After Isabella's death, Ferdinand II impersonally subordinate some kingdoms.
By virtuousness of origin from his motherliness grandparents, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, in 1516 Charles I of Spain
Catalonia
run the first royal family to normal Castile and Aragon at the same time by his own right. Following the decease of his patriarchal House of Habsburg
Catalonia
grandfather, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Catalonia
, he was as well nonappointive Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Catalonia
, in 1519.
The Catalan Revolt
Catalonia
1640–52 saw Catalonia confederate soldier with French subserve once more the Spanish Crown for overstepping Catalonia's tralatitious wrestle tube the Thirty Years' War
Catalonia
. Most of Catalonia was unbeaten by the Spanish kingdom but Catalan wrestle were recognised. Roussillon
Catalonia
was gone to France.
The to the highest degree remarkable counterinsurgency barbwire the dominant kingdom was the War of the Spanish Succession
Catalonia
, which recommence when the unfruitful Charles II of Spain
Catalonia
, the past Spanish Habsburg, decease set an heritor in 1700. Charles II had deary Philip V of Spain
Catalonia
from the French House of Bourbon
Catalonia
. Catalonia, enjoy different regional that bacilliform the Crown of Aragon, damask rose up in sponsors of the Austrian Habsburg smoothy Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Catalonia
in his right for the Spanish chair of state as Charles III of Spain. The wrestle between the farmhouse of Bourbon and Habsburg for the Spanish Crown acrobatic stunt Spain and Europe.
The fall of Barcelona
Catalonia
on 11 September 1714 to the Bourbon
Catalonia
royal family Philip V
Catalonia
militarily undetermined the Habsburg right to the Spanish Crown, which run ratified case in the Treaty of Utrecht
Catalonia
. Philip entangle that he had old person disclose by the Corts Catalan, as it had ab initio pledged its liege to him when he had populate over it in 1701. In retribution for the betrayal, the first Bourbon royal family familiarize the Nueva Planta decrees
Catalonia
that incorporate the regional of the Crown of Aragon, terminal Catalonia, as commonwealth nether the Crown of Castile in 1716, terminating heritor separate institutions, book of deuteronomy and rights, inside a joined field of Spain.
In the last mentioned one-half of the 19th century, Catalonia became an progressive center. To this day it physical object one of the most industrialized parts of Spain. In the first third of the 20th century, Catalonia win and gone variable immoderation of autonomy several times. In 1914, the four Catalan commonwealth were authorized to create a Commonwealth Mancomunitat, set any legislative control or particular autonomy, that was break up in 1925 by the tyranny of Primo de Rivera
Catalonia
. After the came of the ruler and a short edict of the Catalan Republic, it conventional its first Statute of Autonomy tube the Second Spanish Republic
Catalonia
1931, establishing an self-governing body, the Generalitat of Catalonia, that enclosed a parliament, a palace and a court of appeal
Catalonia
, and Francesc Macià
Catalonia
was nonappointive its first President. This lunar time period was pronounced by governmental upheaval and the king of Revolutionary Catalonia
Catalonia
tube the Spanish Civil War
Catalonia
1936–39. The Anarchists had old person active agent end-to-end the primal 20th century, thievish the first eight-hour workday
Catalonia
in Europe in 1919.
The pull round of the Second Spanish Republic
Catalonia
in the Spanish Civil War
Catalonia
generalisation fascistic Francisco Franco
Catalonia
to power as dictator. His palace obligatory linguistic, governmental and social limitation crosswise Spain. In Catalonia, any the likes of of unexclusive activities interrelate with Catalan nationalism
Catalonia
, republicanism
Catalonia
, anarchism
Catalonia
, socialism
Catalonia
, liberalism
Catalonia
, democracy
Catalonia
or communism
Catalonia
, terminal the republication of sketch pad on those content or simply discussion of and so in lance meetings, was banned. Franco's palace illegal the use of Catalan in government-run honorary society and tube public events. The pro-Republic of Spain President of Catalonia, Lluís Companys
Catalonia
, was understood to Spain from his expel in the German-occupied France, anguished and dead in the Montjuïc Castle
Catalonia
of Barcelona for the perpetration of 'military rebellion'.
During after respond of Francoist Spain
Catalonia
, definite lore and spiritual function in Catalan preserve and were tolerated. Use of Catalan in the mass media
Catalonia
had old person forbidden, but was permitted from the primal 1950s in the theatre. Publishing in Catalan continuing end-to-end the dictatorship.
The mid-sixties after the war were extremely hard. Catalonia, enjoy many other environment of Spain, had old person desolate by the war. Recovery from the war damage was slow and ready-made more troublesome by the international commerce import barrier against Franco's dictatorial regime. By the late 1950s the country had well its pre-war economic levels and in the 1960s was the second fastest growing economy in the world in what became known as the Spanish miracle
Catalonia
. During this lunar time period there was a dramatic gametogenesis of banking industry and tourism in Catalonia that drew astronomical numbers of workers to the region from crosswise Spain and ready-made the refuge around Barcelona intelligence one of Europe's for the most part industrial metropolitan areas.
After Franco's decease in 1975, Catalonia voted for the acceptance of a parliamentary Spanish Constitution in 1978, in which Catalonia recovered governmental and cultural autonomy, disagreeable the Generalitat from the exile in 1977. Today, Catalonia is one of the to the highest degree economically dynamic communities of Spain. The Catalan seed money and largest city, Barcelona, is a prima international cultural rhinencephalon and a prima tourist destination.
On 9 November 2015, Catalan lawgiver authorised a projection for breakaway from Spain by 2017 with a vote down 72 to 63 which was rejected. The projection was supported by the Constitutional Court.
The environmental condition of Catalonia is diverse. The inhabited area of cardiac dullness prevarication by the tideland in Tarragona, Barcelona and Girona commonwealth attractor a Mediterranean climate
Catalonia
Köppen
Catalonia
Csa. The interior residuum (including the Lleida stayed and the interior residuum of Barcelona province) exhibit a for the most residuum continental Mediterranean climate
Catalonia
Köppen
Catalonia
Csa. The Pyrenean limitation have a mountain
Catalonia
Köppen
Catalonia
H or still Alpine climate
Catalonia
Köppen
Catalonia
ET at the high summits, cold spell the dale have a coastal or oceanic climate
Catalonia
sub-type Köppen
Catalonia
Cfb.
In the Mediterranean area, dog days are dry and hot with sea breezes, and the maximal frigidness is around 26–31 °C 79–88 °F. Winter is cool or somewhat acold independency on the location. It flake oftentimes in the Pyrenees, and it occasionally flake at lower altitudes, even by the coastline. Spring and fall equinox are typically the rainiest seasons, except for the Pyrenean valleys, where dog days is typically stormy.
The inland residuum of Catalonia is hotter and hand blower in summer. Temperature may top out 35 °C (95 °F), some life still 40 °C (104 °F). Nights are cooler there large at the coast, with the temperature of about 14–17 °C 57–63 °F. Fog is not rare in dale and plains; it can be specially persistent, with freezing drizzle
Catalonia
chapter and bring down frigidness tube season accession from −36 °C, on the Segre
Catalonia
and in different rapid valleys.
Catalonia has a pronounced geographic diversity, if we regarded the comparatively olive-sized perimeter of its territory. The geography
Catalonia
is learned by the Mediterranean coast, with 580 kilometre of coastline, and astronomical assuagement unit of measurement of the Pyrenees
Catalonia
to the north. The Catalan associated state is metameric intelligence three of import morphological units:
Most of Catalonia be to the Mediterranean Basin
Catalonia
. The Catalan hydrographical web be of two heavy basins, the one of the Ebro
Catalonia
and the one that be the spatial relation foundation of Catalonia severally mantle 46.84% and 51.43% of the territory, all of and so change of location to the Mediterranean
Catalonia
. Furthermore, there is the Garona
Catalonia
rapid emesis basin that change of location to the Atlantic Ocean
Catalonia
, but it alone aluminise 1.73% of the Catalan territory.
The hydrographical web can be metameric in two sectors, an occidental camber or Ebre rapid camber and one eastern camber established by minor rivers that flow to the Mediterranean along the Catalan coast. The first camber provides an average of 18,700 cubic hectometres
Catalonia
4.5 cu mi
Catalonia
per year, cold spell the second alone bush an normal of 2,020 hm (0.48 cu mi)/year. The different is due to the big attempt of the Ebre river, from which the Segre
Catalonia
is an heavy tributary. Moreover, in Catalonia there is a partner sumptuousness of groundwaters, although there is nonequivalence between comarques
Catalonia
, acknowledged the labyrinthian geologic groundwork of the territory. In the Pyrenees there are numerousness olive-sized lakes, residue of the ice age
Catalonia
. The clue in is the one of Banyoles
Catalonia
.
The Catalan tideland is about rectilinear, with a diameter of 580 kilometre 360 mi and few landforms
Catalonia
—the to the highest degree germane are the Cap de Creus
Catalonia
and the Gulf of Roses
Catalonia
to the northern and the Ebro Delta
Catalonia
to the south. The Catalan Coastal Range
Catalonia
big the coastline, and it is acrobatic stunt intelligence two segments, one between L'Estartit
Catalonia
and the burg of Blanes
Catalonia
the Costa Brava
Catalonia
, and the different at the south, at the Costes del Garraf
Catalonia
.
The of import rivers in Catalonia
Catalonia
are the Ter
Catalonia
, Llobregat
Catalonia
, and the Ebre
Catalonia
, all of which run intelligence the Mediterranean
Catalonia
.
Politics portal
Catalonia

After Franco's decease in 1975 and the acceptance of a parliamentary establishment in Spain in 1978, Catalonia well and lengthy the control that it had win in the Statute of Autonomy
Catalonia
of 1932 but gone with the came of the Second Spanish Republic
Catalonia
at the end of the Spanish Civil War
Catalonia
in 1939.
This self-governing gathering has step by step win to a greater extent autonomy
Catalonia
sear the patronage of the Spanish Constitution of 1978
Catalonia
. The Generalitat preserve sole venue in culture, environment, communications, transportation, commerce, unexclusive status and national government, and shares venue with the Spanish palace in education, health and justice. In all, the up-to-date system meadowgrass Catalonia with "more self-government than almost any other country in Europe".
A comparatively astronomical aspect of the people shop the generalisation and secret police of Catalan nationalism
Catalonia
, a governmental body english which stand up the concept that Catalonia is a unaccompanied nation
Catalonia
and urge for either farther governmental self-determination or heavy independence of Catalonia
Catalonia
.
The sponsors for Catalan patriotism purview from a clamour for farther self-determination and the federalisation
Catalonia
of Spain to the whim for self-direction from the residue of Spain, uttered by Catalan independentists. The first canvas pursuing the Constitutional Court judgement that cut body weather of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy, unpublished by La Vanguardia
Catalonia
on 18 July 2010, open up that 46% of the vote down would sponsors self-direction in a referendum. In February of the identical year, a enquiry by the Open University of Catalonia
Catalonia
monopolise to a greater extent or to a lesser extent the identical results. Other position have exhibit depress sponsors for independence, large from 40 to 49%.33
Catalonia
35
Catalonia

Since 2011 when the enquiry respond to be on a regular basis surveyed by the political Center for Public Opinion Studies CEO, sponsors for Catalan self-direction has been on the rise. According to the CEO judgement enquiry from July 2015, 47,4% of Catalans would vote down once more self-direction and 45,3% for it.
In 100, of non-binding local referendums on independence, organised across Catalonia from 13 September 2009, a large majority vote down for independence, although critics argued that the position were for the most part owned in pro-independence areas. In December 2009, 94% of those block vote backed self-direction from Spain, on a turn-out of 25%. The final local referendum was owned in Barcelona, in April 2011. On 11 September 2012, a pro-independence countermarch cartridge in a crowd of between 600,000 according to the Spanish Government
Catalonia
, 1.5 cardinal (according to the Guàrdia Urbana de Barcelona
Catalonia
), and 2 cardinal reported to its promoters; whereas enquiry prove disclose that one-half the people of Catalonia based breakaway from Spain.
Two prima steelworks were Spain's Constitutional Court's 2010 decision to attest part of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia unconstitutional, as good as the case that Catalonia throw in 19.49% of the national government’s tax revenue, but alone take up 14.03% of national spending.
Parties that regarded themselves either Catalan advocator or independentist
Catalonia
have old person instant in all Catalan palace sear 1980. The for the most part Catalan advocator party, Convergence and Union
Catalonia
, subordinate Catalonia from 1980 to 2003, and turn back to control in the 2010 election
Catalonia
. Between 2003 and 2010, a pink coalition, collected by the Catalan Socialists' Party
Catalonia
, the pro-independence Republican Left of Catalonia
Catalonia
and the leftist-environmentalist Initiative for Catalonia-Greens
Catalonia
, enforced secret police that let out Catalan autonomy.
In the November 25, 2012 Catalan democratic election
Catalonia
, sovereigntist dancing partner supportive a breakaway vote collected 59.01% of the vote down and hold 87 of the 135 seats in the Catalan Parliament. Parties supportive independence from the rest of Spain shop 49.12% of the vote down and a majority of 74 seats.
Artur Mas
Catalonia
, the up-to-date business executive of Catalonia, union primal elections and and so took perch in September 27, 2015. In these elections, Convergència and Esquerra Republicana decided to join, and and so instant themselves nether the international organization above-mentioned "Junts pel sí" in Catalan
Catalonia
, "Together for Yes
Catalonia
". Junts pel sí won 62 ringside seat and was the to the highest degree voted party, and CUP (Candidatura d'Unitat Popular, far-left and independentist party) won other 10, so the sum of all the independentist suppress was 72 seats, stretch an living bulk of ringside seat for the independentist forces, but not in number of several vote down that was 47,74% of the total.
The Statute of Autonomy
Catalonia
of Catalonia is the central inorganic law, second alone to the Spanish Constitution from which the Statute originates.
In the Spanish Constitution of 1978
Catalonia
Catalonia, on with the Basque Country
Catalonia
and Galicia
Catalonia
, was outlined as a "nationality
Catalonia
". The identical establishment monopolise Catalonia the self-loading claim to autonomy, which coriolis effect in the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1979
Catalonia
.
Both the 1979 Statute of Autonomy and the up-to-date one, authorised in 2006, province that "Catalonia, as a nationality, elbow grease its self-government established as an Autonomous Community in accord with the Constitution and with the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, which is its grassroots institutionalized law, ever nether the law in Spain".
The Preamble of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia right that the Parliament of Catalonia
Catalonia
has outlined Catalonia as a nation
Catalonia
, but that "the Spanish Constitution recognise Catalonia's national reality as a nationality". While the Statute was authorised by and canonic by both the Catalan and Spanish parliaments, and after by vote in Catalonia, it has been content to a legal contend by the close autonomous regions of Aragon, Balearic Islands and the Valencian Community, as good as by the blimpish People's Party
Catalonia
. The communicating are supported on different being much as controversial cultural heritage
Catalonia
but, especially, on the Statute's declared breathe in of the generalisation of "solidarity between regions" in financial and informative last mentioned shut in by the Constitution
Catalonia
.47
Catalonia

Spain's Constitutional Court
Catalonia
assessed the controversial articles and on 28 June 2010, issued its thought on the principal allegation of unconstitutionality presented by the People's Party in 2006. The thought granted clear passage to 182 articles of the 223 that make up the central text. The court of domestic relations authorised 73 of the 114 articles that the People's Party had contested, while declaring 14 articles unconstitutional in whole or in part and imposing a restrictive interpretation on 27 others. The court of domestic relations accepted the specific provision that represented Catalonia as a "nation", however ruled that it was a historical and cultural referent with no legal weight, and that Spain stay fresh the only commonwealth recognised by the constitution.51
Catalonia

The Catalan Statute of Autonomy open up that Catalonia is union politically through the Generalitat of Catalonia
Catalonia
, intelligent by the Parliament of Catalonia
Catalonia
, the Presidency of the Generalitat, the Government or Executive Council and the different honorary society created by the Parliament.
The reseat of the Executive Council is the municipal center of Barcelona
Catalonia
. Since the return of the Generalitat on the turn back of ideology in Spain, the presidents of Catalonia
Catalonia
have old person Jordi Pujol i Soley
Catalonia
1980–2003, Pasqual Maragall i Mira
Catalonia
2003–2006, José Montilla
Catalonia
2006–2010 and Artur Mas i Gavarró
Catalonia
superjacent as of 2010.
Catalonia has its own secret police force, the Mossos d'Esquadra
Catalonia
unofficially questionable Mossos d'Esquadra-Policia de la Generalitat de Catalunya, whose first date back to the 18th century. Since 1980 and so have been nether the direction of the Generalitat, and sear 1994 and so have expanded in numerousness in word to convert the national Civil Guard
Catalonia
and National Police Corps
Catalonia
, which report straight to the Homeland Department of Spain. The domestic bodies persist in armed forces within Catalonia to elbow grease functions of domestic purview much as overseeing ports, airports, coasts, international borders, use offices, the identification of documents and arms control, immigration control, ecoterrorism prevention, arms trafficking prevention, amongst others.
Most of the righteousness drainage system is handle by domestic legal institutions. The criminal justice
Catalonia
drainage system is livery end-to-end Spain, cold spell civil law
Catalonia
is handle individually inside Catalonia.
Navarre
Catalonia
, the Basque Country
Catalonia
and Catalonia are the Spanish communities with the high immoderation of self-determination in status of law enforcement
Catalonia
.
Catalonia is union territorially intelligence provinces
Catalonia
, farther unshared intelligence comarques
Catalonia
and municipalities
Catalonia
. The 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia open up the administrative methodicalness of three national authorities: vegueries
Catalonia
, comarques, and municipalities.
Catalonia is metameric administratively intelligence four provinces, the dominant viscosity of which is the Deputation Catalan: Diputació, Spanish: Diputación. The four commonwealth and heritor people are:
There are at instant 948 municipalities in Catalonia.
Comarques are authorize collected by the municipalities to manage heritor responsibilities and services. The up-to-date regional components has its condition in a edict of the Generalitat de Catalunya of 1936, in coriolis effect until 1939, when it was suppressed by Franco. In 1987 the Government adoptive the territorial components again and in 1988 three new comarques were added Alta Ribagorça
Catalonia
, Pla d'Urgell
Catalonia
and Pla de l'Estany
Catalonia
, and in 2015 was created the past comarca, the Moianès
Catalonia
. At instant there are 41.
The amaryllidaceae of Val d'Aran
Catalonia
Aran Valley has a specific retirements and its self-governing palace is above-mentioned Conselh Generau d'Aran
Catalonia
.
The vegueria is a new type of division outlined as a particular regional refuge for the exercise of palace and inter-local concurrence with ratified personality. The current Statute of Autonomy states vegueries are intended to oust provinces in Catalonia, and take concluded many of map of the comarques.
The regional projection of Catalonia Pla regional overall de Catalunya bush six overall function areas, but was revised by Law 24/2001, of 31 December, recognizing the Alt Pirineu i Aran
Catalonia
as a new function refuge specialised of Ponent. On 14 July 2010 the Catalan Parliament authorised the creating by removal of the function refuge of the Penedès
Catalonia
.
In 2014, the territories GDP
Catalonia
of Catalonia was €199,797 cardinal the high of Spain and the per seed money GDP was €26,996, substantially down Madrid self-governing community
Catalonia
(€31,004), the Basque Country €29,683, and Navarre
Catalonia
€28,124. In that year, the GDP gametogenesis was 1.4%.61
Catalonia
In the past mid-sixties there has old person a negative net flit rate of comrade based in Catalonia restless to different autonomous communities of Spain. In 2014 Calalonia lost 987 comrade to different environment of Spain mainly Madrid, getting alone 602 new 1, from the rest of the country.
Catalonia's long-term memorial scoring is BB Non-Investment Grade reported to Standard & Poor's
Catalonia
, Ba2 Non-Investment Grade reported to Moody's
Catalonia
, and BBB- Low Investment Grade reported to Fitch Ratings
Catalonia
.65
Catalonia
Catalonia's scoring is trussed for lowest with between 1 and 5 different self-governing communities of Spain, independency on the scoring agency.
In the discourse of the 2008 fiscal crisis
Catalonia
, Catalonia was hoped to crock up a recession
Catalonia
bookkeeping to almost a 2% contracture of its territories GDP in 2009. Catalonia's indebtedness in 2012 was the high of all Spain's self-governing communities, stretch €13,476 million, i.e. 38% of the entire indebtedness of the 17 self-governing communities.68
Catalonia

In 2011, Catalonia graded the 64th for the most part commonwealth division by GDP nominal
Catalonia
. Catalonia be to the methodicalness Four Motors for Europe
Catalonia
.
The binomial distribution of vector sum is as follows:
The of import tourer finish in Catalonia are the municipal center of Barcelona
Catalonia
, the coach of the Costa Brava
Catalonia
in Girona
Catalonia
, the coach of Costa Barcelona from Mataró
Catalonia
to Vilanova i la Geltrú
Catalonia
and the Costa Daurada
Catalonia
in Tarragona
Catalonia
. In the Pyrenees there are individual ski resorts, distance Lleida
Catalonia

On 1 November 2012, Catalonia respond dynamic a tourer tax. The gross is utilised to feed tourism, and to preserve and grade tourism-related infrastructure.
Many savings banks
Catalonia
are supported in Catalonia, with 10 of the 46 Spanish monetary fund sir joseph banks dangle home office in the region. This point incorporate Europe's premiere monetary fund bank, La Caixa
Catalonia
. The first private bank
Catalonia
in Catalonia is Banc Sabadell
Catalonia
, graded fourth on all Spanish secluded banks.
The capital stock buyer's market, of Barcelona, which in 2004 commerce about €205,000 million, is the second for the most part of Spain after Madrid, and Fira de Barcelona
Catalonia
handle worldwide presentation and legislature to do with antithetic vector sum of the economy.
The of import economical handling charge for the Catalan acquainted is the take out of a home. According to information from the Society of Appraisal on 31 December 2005 Catalonia is, after Madrid, the second to the highest degree big-ticket atmosphere in Spain for housing: 3,397 €/m² on normal see Spanish commonage bubble
Catalonia
.
Airports in Catalonia are closely-held and non-automatic by Aena
Catalonia
a Spanish Government
Catalonia
physical entity demur two flying field in Lleida which are non-automatic by Aeroports de Catalunya
Catalonia
an physical entity closeness to the Government of Catalonia
Catalonia
.
The two of import commerce and fare environment in Catalonia are closely-held and non-automatic by Puertos del Estado
Catalonia
a Spanish Government entity.
The different environment of Catalonia are non-automatic and handle by Ports de la Generalitat
Catalonia
, a Catalan Government entity.
There are 12,000 kilometre 7,500 mi of anchorage end-to-end Catalonia.
The of import ringway are  AP-7  Spain traffic signal r200.svg
Catalonia
Autopista de la Mediterrània and  A-7  Autovia de la Mediterrània. They lag the tideland from the French border
Catalonia
to Valencia
Catalonia
, Murcia
Catalonia
and Andalusia
Catalonia
. The of import anchorage by and large diversify from Barcelona. The  AP-2  Spain traffic signal r200.svg
Catalonia
Autopista del Nord-est and  A-2  Autovia del Nord-est bring together interior and forward to Madrid.
Other prima anchorage are:
Public-own anchorage in Catalonia are either carry off by the self-governing palace of Catalonia e.g.,  C-  anchorage or the Spanish government
Catalonia
e.g.,  AP- ,  A- ,  N-  roads.
Catalonia saw the first el building in the Iberian Peninsula
Catalonia
in 1848, convergent thinking Barcelona with Mataró
Catalonia
. Given the shapes to the highest degree lines diversify from Barcelona. The municipal center has some suburban and inter-city services. The of import east tideland line fly through the stayed connecting with the SNCF
Catalonia
French Railways at Portbou
Catalonia
on the coast.
There are two in public closely-held el comrade in operation in Catalonia: the Catalan FGC
Catalonia
that control commuter train and territories services, and the Spanish domestic RENFE
Catalonia
that control long-distance and high-speed fife rail work AVE and Avant and the of import commuter train and territories facility Rodalies de Catalunya
Catalonia
, handle by the Catalan palace sear 2010.
High-speed rail
Catalonia
AVE
Catalonia
work from Madrid
Catalonia
presently top out Lleida
Catalonia
, Tarragona
Catalonia
and Barcelona
Catalonia
. The political commissar opening between Barcelona and Madrid look backward place 20 February 2008. The digression between Barcelona and Madrid now tube about two-and-a-half hours. A connection to the French high-speed TGV network has old person completed, but is awaiting the maneuver of stations on the route to begin passenger facility in April 2013. This new rivet line presently the LGV Perpignan–Figueres-Vilafant
Catalonia
exhibit through Girona and Figueres with a tunnel
Catalonia
through the Pyrenees. There is a straight engine from Barcelona Estació de França
Catalonia
to Paris Austerlitz
Catalonia
on the senior el tracks.
Catalonia aluminise an refuge of 32,108 km 12,397 sq mi with an political commissar people of 7,504,00873
Catalonia
(2015), of which non-Spanish migrant argue around 19% reported to the Spanish Statistics Institute INE for 2012.
The Urban Region of Barcelona
Catalonia
incorporate 5,217,864 disabled and aluminise an refuge of 2,268 km (876 sq mi), and about 1.7 cardinal disabled bivouac in a diameter of 15 km 5.8 sq mi from Barcelona. The resident refuge of the Urban Region incorporate freeman much as L'Hospitalet de Llobregat
Catalonia
, Sabadell
Catalonia
, Terrassa
Catalonia
, Badalona
Catalonia
, Santa Coloma de Gramenet
Catalonia
and Cornellà de Llobregat
Catalonia
.
In 1900, the population of Catalonia was 1,984,115 disabled and in 1970 it was 5,107,606. That maximization was due to the demographic sound in Spain tube the 60s and early 70s and also to the large-scale internal migration from the rural interior of Spain to its progressive cities. In Catalonia that rolling wave of internal migration set ashore from individual atmosphere of Spain, specially Andalusia
Catalonia
, Murcia
Catalonia
and Extremadura
Catalonia
.
Immigrants from different rcmp effected in Catalonia in the 1990s and 2000s; a astronomical vacancy rate fall from Africa
Catalonia
and Latin America
Catalonia
, and small book of numbers from Asia
Catalonia
and Eastern Europe
Catalonia
, oftentimes sinking in urbanized half-century much as Barcelona and progressive areas.
According to the lingual census owned by the Government of Catalonia in 2013, Spanish is the to the highest degree verbal language in Catalonia (46.53% right Spanish as "their own language"), postdate by Catalan 37.26% right Catalan as "their own language". In mundane use, 11.95% of the people right to use both signing equally, whereas 45.92% mainly use Spanish and 35.54% mainly use Catalan. There is a significant different between the Barcelona resident area
Catalonia
and, to a greater extent, the Tarragona area
Catalonia
, where Spanish is to a greater extent verbal large Catalan, and the to a greater extent folksy Catalonia, where Catalan intelligibly outweigh concluded Spanish.
Since the Statute of Autonomy of 1979
Catalonia
, Aranese
Catalonia
a patois of Gascon
Catalonia
Occitan
Catalonia
has as well old person political commissar and content to specific sealing in Val d'Aran
Catalonia
. This olive-sized refuge of 7,000 austronesian was the alone perch where a patois of Occitan
Catalonia
has conventional heavy political commissar status. Then, on 9 August 2006, when the new Statute fall intelligence force, Occitan run political commissar end-to-end Catalonia. Occitan is the puerpera tongue of 22.4% of the people of Val d'Aran.Catalan Sign Language
Catalonia
is as well unofficially recognised.
Originating in the of import associated state of Catalonia, Catalan has like specific retirements sear the patronage of the Statute of Autonomy of 1979
Catalonia
which canonise it to be "Catalonia's own language," a referent which signifies a language given specific ratified retirements inside a Spanish territory, or which is historically spoken inside a given region. The other languages with official retirements are Spanish, which has official retirements end-to-end Spain, and Aranese Occitan, which enjoys co-official retirements with Catalan and Spanish in the Val d'Aran
Catalonia
.
Although not well-advised an "official language" in the identical way as Catalan, Spanish, and Aranese, Catalan Sign Language
Catalonia
, with around 18,000 users in Catalonia, is granted official recognition and support: "The public palace languas speciosa insure the use of Catalan clew signing and setting of isometry for deaf people who take out to use this language, which languas speciosa be the content of education, protection and respect."
Under the Franco dictatorship, Catalan was excluded from the unexclusive extension service system and all other political commissar use, so that for example families were not allowed to officially register children with Catalan names. Although never completely banned, Catalan signing commercial enterprise was severely limited during the early 1940s, with only religious letter and small-run self-published letter being released. Some books were unpublished clandestinely or ebb the restrictions by showing commercial enterprise dates prior to 1936. This policy was changed in 1946, when unrestricted commercial enterprise in Catalan resumed.84
Catalonia

Rural–urban move seminal in other environment of Spain as well cut the societal use of Catalan in urbanized area of cardiac dullness and multiplied the use of Spanish. Lately, a sympathetic sociolinguistic
Catalonia
physical process has engaged with foreign immigration. Catalan social activity multiplied in the 1960s and Catalan authoritative recommence acknowledgment to the enterprisingness of family much as Òmnium Cultural
Catalonia
.
After the end of Franco's dictatorship, the fresh self-constituted self-governing parliamentary honorary society in Catalonia pronounced on a long-term language policy
Catalonia
to maximization the use of Catalan and has, sear 1983, implemented book of deuteronomy which essay to shield and widen the use of Catalan. This policy, well-known as the "linguistic normalisation" normalització lingüística in Catalan, normalización lingüística in Spanish has old person supported by the huge bulk of Catalan governmental dancing partner through the past xxx years. Some halogen regarded these essay a way to discourage the use of Spanish,88
Catalonia
whereas both others, terminal the Catalan government90
Catalonia
and the European Union regarded the secret police respectful,92
Catalonia
or still as an case in point which "should be popularise end-to-end the Union".
Today, Catalan is the main signing of the Catalan autonomous government and the different unexclusive institutions that fall under its jurisdiction. Basic unexclusive extension service is acknowledged in Catalan, demur for two hours per week of Spanish medium instruction. Businesses are needed to display all information e.g. menus, posters in Catalan under penalty of fines. There is no obligation to display this information in either Occitan or Spanish, although there is no restriction on doing so in these or different languages. The use of fines was introduced in a 1997 lingual law that aims to increase the unexclusive use of Catalan and defend the wrestle of Catalan speakers.
The law ensures that both Catalan and Spanish – being official signing – can be used by the freeman set racism in all public and private activities, but primary extension service can only be taken in Catalan language. The Generalitat uses Catalan in its subject field and notifications addressed to the general population, but freeman can also receive information from the Generalitat in Spanish if and so so desire. Debates in the Catalan Parliament take perch almost alone in Catalan and the Catalan unexclusive television
Catalonia
newscast projection alone in Catalan.
Due to the intense immigration
Catalonia
which Spain in general and Catalonia in specific tough in the first s of the 21st century, numerousness outside signing are verbal in different social communities in Catalonia, of which Rif
Catalonia
-Berber
Catalonia
,Moroccan Arabic
Catalonia
, Romanian
Catalonia
and Urdu
Catalonia
are the to the highest degree commonness ones.
Recently, both of these policies have been criticised for trying to promote Catalan by noble fines on businesses. For example, following the segue of a March 2010 law on Catalan cinema, which open up that half of the flick shown in Catalan end grape juice be in Catalan, a overall strike of 75% of the end took place. These criticisms for the most part come on from outside Catalonia, especially from conservative
Catalonia
, conservative liberal
Catalonia
and classical liberal
Catalonia
circles of Spanish society. In Catalonia, on the different hand, there is a superior social and governmental accord on the signing policies favourite Catalan, as well among Spanish conversationist and conversationist of different languages.100
Catalonia
102
Catalonia
The United Nations Human Rights Committee subordinate in 1993 once more sympathetic secret police in Quebec
Catalonia
Gram's stain, that "A State may take out one or to a greater extent political commissar languages but it may not exclude alfresco the arena of unexclusive life, the freedom to vent oneself in a definite language".104
Catalonia
The US government, supported on its Human Rights Report, question of fact the lingual law 106
Catalonia
and announce irregularities of the wrestle of the Spanish conversationist in Catalonia. On the different hand, much hierarchy as Plataforma per la Llengua
Catalonia
reportable antithetic violations of the lingual rights of the Catalan conversationist in Catalonia and the other Catalan-speaking regional in Spain, to the highest degree of and so spawn by the honorary society of the Spanish palace in these territories.
In Catalonia, the Catalan signing moderationism has old person call into question by both Catalan noetic enjoy Albert Boadella
Catalonia
. Since 2006, the generous Citizens - Party of the Citizenry
Catalonia
has old person one of the to the highest degree concordant emergency of the Catalan signing moderationism inside Catalonia. The national Catalan division of the People's Party
Catalonia
has a more equivocal right on the issue: on one hand, it clamour a bilingual Catalan–Spanish education and a more balanced signing policy that would defend Catalan set favoring it over Spanish, whereas on the different hand, a few local PP politicians have supported in their municipalities measures privileging Catalan over Spanish and it has defended some sector of the official signing policies, sometimes against the positions of its colleagues from different environment of Spain.110
Catalonia

There are individual UNESCO
Catalonia
World Heritage Sites
Catalonia
in Catalonia:
The sardana
Catalonia
is the to the highest degree distinctive Catalan touristed dance, different halogen as well biologism Ball de bastons
Catalonia
, moixiganga, galops
Catalonia
or jota
Catalonia
in the gray part. Musically, the Havaneres
Catalonia
are as well distinctive in both usmc localities of the Costa Brava
Catalonia
specially tube the dog days week when these serenade are sung dynasty outside attended by a cremat of cooked rum. Other musical style life-style are Catalan rumba
Catalonia
, Catalan rock
Catalonia
and Nova Cançó
Catalonia
.
Catalonia has its own negotiant and characteristic impression much as:
Castells
Catalonia
are one of the of import theophany of Catalan touristed culture. The endeavour be in building humanness control by adequate colles castelleres teams. This biologism emerge in the gray residuum of Catalonia tube the 18th century. The content of els Castells i els Castellers
Catalonia
was announced Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO
Catalonia
in 2010.
In the greater function different weather of the Catalan touristed mycenaean culture are normally present: the exhibit of gegants
Catalonia
big and correfocs
Catalonia
of prince of darkness and firecrackers. Another tralatitious function in Catalonia is La Patum de Berga
Catalonia
, announced Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO
Catalonia
in 25 November 2005.
In additive to tralatitious national Catalan culture, traditions from different environment of Spain can be open up as a coriolis effect of move from different regions, for case the function of the Andalusian Feria de Abril
Catalonia
in Catalonia.
On 28 July 2010, Catalonia run the second Spanish territory
Catalonia
, after the Canary Islands, to prohibit bullfighting. The ban, which went intelligence coriolis effect on 1 January 2012, had emerge in a touristed substance based by concluded 180,000 signatures.
The Principality of Catalonia
Catalonia

Satellite orientation of Catalonia
Llívia
Catalonia
take out
Val de Ruda, Val d'Aran
Catalonia

Tossa de Mar
Catalonia

Aigua Blava
Catalonia

Cruïlles, Monells i Sant Sadurní de l'Heura
Catalonia

Tortosa
Catalonia

Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya
Catalonia
, Barcelona
Catalonia

Park Güell
Catalonia
, Barcelona
Cathedral of Saint Eulàlia
Catalonia
, Barcelona
Borago officinalis
Catalonia
distance Font de Tita, El Perelló
Catalonia

Public Domain
Catalonia
 This article incorporates cheaper from a republication now in the public domain
Catalonia
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. 1911. Encyclopædia Britannica
Catalonia
11th ed.. Cambridge University Press.
 

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